Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by the abnormal production and impaired degradation of pulmonary surfactant as a result of malfunctioning of alveolar macrophages. This is due to the downstream dysregulation of the GM-CSF pathway, which can be caused by specific autoantibodies (autoimmune, aPAP formerly known as idiopathic iPAP), direct injury to alveolar macrophages (e.g. by toxic inhaled agents.), or by genetic defects (hereditary or congenital PAP). Few pharmacotherapy options are currently available to treat this disease. For more information click here.
Rare Musculoskeletal Diseases in Adults