Wieacker-Wolff syndrome is an ultra-rare disease with X-linked inheritance characterized by arthrogryposis, intellectual disability, microcephaly, and distal limb muscle atrophy. Ophthalmic abnormalities such as ptosis, strabismus, and oculomotor apraxia have been reported in half of the patients. Wieacker-Wolff syndrome female-restricted (WRWFFR) is an even rarer disease recently used for females with a more severe phenotype.
A 4 years-old girl with developmental and language delay, microcephaly, camptodactyly, digital pads, and arthrogryposis was identified by the clinical geneticist. Ophthalmic examination reveals deep-set eyes, high hyperopic astigmatism in both eyes, and reduced retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography. Exome sequencing identified a novel, probably pathogenic variant in the ZC4H2 gene NM_018684.3:c.145A>T p. (Lys49*) in heterozygosis.
WRWFFR is an ultra-rare disease with X-linked inheritance by variants in the ZC4H2 gene. This case reports a girl with a novel nonsense variant in the ZC4H2 gene and a severe phenotype; previous reports have identified WRWFFR in females with large deletions and nonsense mutations which could explain the manifestations in the current case report. A complete ophthalmic examination should be considered in patients with WRWFFR to detect the possibly associated optic nerve involvement and other previously described manifestations such as ptosis and strabismus. Read the full article here.