Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease that results from extensive resection of the intestine. When the remaining absorption surface of the intestine cannot absorb enough macronutrients, micronutrients, and water, SBS results in intestinal failure (IF). Patients with SBS who suffer from IF require parenteral nutrition for survival, but long-term parenteral nutrition may lead to complications such as catheter sepsis and metabolic diseases. Spontaneous intestinal adaptation occurs weeks to months after resection, resulting in hyperplasia of the remnant gut, modification of gut hormone levels, dysbiosis, and hyperphagia. Oral nutrition and presence of the colon are two major positive drivers for this adaptation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying spontaneous intestinal adaptation, particularly in response to modifications of luminal content, including nutrients. In the future, dietary manipulations could be used to treat SBS. For more information click here.