New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE), including its subtype with a preceding febrile illness known as febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), is one of the most severe forms of status epilepticus. The exact causes of NORSE are currently unknown, and there is so far no disease-specific therapy. Identifying the underlying pathophysiology and discovering specific biomarkers, whether immunologic, infectious, genetic, or other, may help physicians in the management of patients with NORSE. A broad spectrum of biomarkers has been proposed for status epilepticus patients, some of which were evaluated for patients with NORSE. Nonetheless, none has been validated, due to significant variabilities in study cohorts, collected biospecimens, applied analytical methods, and defined outcome endpoints, and to small sample sizes. The NORSE Institute established an open NORSE/FIRES biorepository for health-related data and biological samples allowing the collection of biospecimens worldwide, promoting multicenter research and sharing of data and specimens. In this report are standard operating procedures for biospecimen collection and biobanking in this rare condition suggested. Also are criteria for the appropriate use of previously collected biospecimens proposed. It is predicted that the widespread use of standardized procedures will reduce heterogeneity, facilitate the future identification of validated biomarkers for NORSE, and provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology and best clinical management for these patients. Read the full article here.